Ancient City of Ephesus

Ancient Ionian Greek city; its ruins lie close to the modern village of Selcuk in Turkey. it had been located south of the Cayster river, and was the location of the Temple of Artemis. traditionally founded by the Carians, it had been one among the 12 Ionian Cities and was involved in the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. Throughout the Hellenistic period It had been taken by Alexander the Great c.334 BC and it prospered. In 133 BC it passed to Rome under Augustus and in the Roman province of Asia it became the capital. It was an early seat of Christianity, visited by St. Paul and the recipient of the epistle to the Ephesians. The town and temple were destroyed by the Goths in AD 262 and since never recovered. The ruins are extensively excavated at the modern site.

Agora
The broad space in front of the Theatre was the commercial Agora of Ephesus. fully encircled by columns, this Agora contained 3 entrances, one from the Celsus Library, one from the front of the Theatre, and one from the Harbour. within the form of a square 110 metres on a side, the north side of the Agora is left open, while the remaining 3 sides are encircled by a portico which contained shops. The eastern and southern sides of the Agora were two-storeyed, the second storey of the eastern side being made in the kind of an enclosed Doric stoa.
Originally built in the Hellenistic period, the Agora was reconstructed within the 3rd century during the reign of Caracalla (211-217 A.D.). The sundial and a water-clock are in the centre of the Agora. The centre of the square was faced  in marble and contained statues of the philosophers, statesmen, and of scholars..

 

Aqueduct of Sextilius Pollio
This aqueduct, which brought water to Ephesus, was made between 7 -15 AD. on orders by Sextilius Pollio. The structure is 3.5 kilometers in length and is nowadays situated at Derbent Creek, six miles from the Selcuk-Aydin road. It presents an impressive view as it climbs up the slopes of Derbent along the creek. At Derbent this two-storeyed structure brought water to the large fountain on the southwest of the State Agora from Marnas in the present ruins of Ephesus.

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Arcadian Street
This road extending from the baths to the Theater is named the Arcadian Street. Originally built in the late Hellenistic period, the road was renovated during the reign of the Emperor Arcadius (395-408 AD.), from whom it takes its present name. There were shops and galleries all along either side of the road, which is 530 meters long and 11 meters wide. In the center section is a structure containing 4 high columns, an element of decoration which was made within the 6th century AD. along either side were gates in the style of monumental arches. Since this street extended to the Harbour, it was also named as “Harbour Street”.

Artemission

When you travel to Kusadasi you see on the right side of the road the ruins of the Temple of Artemis (Diana), one among the seven wonders of the ancient world. Artemis, Virgin Mary goddess of nature, and protectiveness of women in giving birth is mentioned within the Iliad with the phrase: Praise be to Artemis! She, who would water her horses at the reed-filled Meles river, then pass rapidly through Smyrna on her golden chariot towards the vineyards of Coloros.”

In this description the mention of Smyrna would suggest that the Goddess Artemis is of Anatolian origin. At another point in his Iliad, Homer offers the birthplace of Artemis as Ortygie. Ortygie” means quail in Ancient Greek, and might also have been associated with the Mount Nightingale which was the site of the original town of Ephesus. moreover, the Ephesians at one point had a resolution passed within the Roman senate stating that their place of origin was Ortygie, and Artemis their patron goddess. it’s perhaps for this reason that the Ephesians erected such a magnificent temple to this goddess. Artemis isn’t, in fact, a word of Greek origin, but a derivative of “Artems”, which means ‘unspoiled’, or “untouched” in an ancient native tongue.

Artemis was considered in Ephesus as one and the same as the Goddess Cybele born on the land of Anatolia they said. She is depicted as a multi breasted  figure with many aspects, and bears the model of a temple on her head, within the form of a crown. This triple-stored crown indicates that she is the guardian of cities, while on her forehead the crescent indicates that she is the moon goddess. At the same time the breasts linked her to the cult of fertility. Artemis also bore the symbol of the bee, the logo of Ephesus, which indicates that she is for the Anatolian mythology a unique product. The ruined Artemision contained a complete of 127 columns, columns being embellished with reliefs. it had been 115 meters long, 55 meters wide and 18 meters high.

The Artemision building earliest traces of the date to the 7th century B.C. the original temple was destroyed by the Cimmerians, and was re-built during the 6th century B.C Destroyed over again during the reign of the mad king Herostratos within the year 356 B.C, Ephesus began to reconstruct its cult center on an even grander scale after that date. Alexander passed through Ephesus at that time and learning that the temple had been destroyed and burnt down on his birthday, the reconstruction he expressed the desire to assist with.

The new Temple he wished to be dedicated to him. however the Ephesians couldn’t assent to this and without his aid they undertook the reconstruction of the temple. The new temple of Artemis measured 105 meters by 55 meters, and was 25 meters tall, covering a section 6000 square meters in all. An area around the Temple Alexander extended the mementos to  inhabited and included it as a part of the sacred compound. This sacred area was preserved through the rule of different Governors and kings, was expanded  and at last abolished by the emperor Augustus. In 263 AD., the temple was destroyed during the invasion of the Goths.

 

Baths of Scholastkia

Behind the Temple of Hadrian are located the Baths of Scholastikia, were entered by means of a stairway alongside the temple. The statue seen within the giant hall on the west belongs to a wealthy Scholastikia, who in the 4th century AD reconstructed the baths . The public toilets and brothel situated alongside the structure were 1st constructed along with the baths within the 1st century A.D. it’s believed that the baths consisted of 3 storeyed. an extensive hall which would have been the 2th storey has been uncovered along with another room to its north and a tiled roof.

The room in which the statue of Scholastikia was situated used as a dressing room, and it extends to the stuccoed hot room (caldarium) on the North. The cold room is on the left (frigidarium). The marble floor of the caldarium is built over brick supports, the hot water flowed under it from the baths’ furnaces on the left. The frigidarium contained a swimming pool, located alongside the dressing room. The baths could house one thousand customers, and contained a library and recreation rooms. there’s also a door opening onto the road leading to the Theatre on the east slope.

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Baths of Varius

A large structure on the east of the Basilica built of cut blocks of marble known as the Baths of Varius. The baths were constructed in the 2nd century AD with its North and East walls carved from natural outcroppings of rock. Renovated on various occasions, of which the 40 meters long corridor covered with mosaics from the 5th century is in evidence. With its caldarium, frigidarium and tepidarium, and other adjacent sections, the baths covers a fairly large area. The large washrooms are located on the south of the baths from the Roman period and other structures that were unearthed in 1969 throughout excavations.

Possibly this structure was a gymnasium and Vedia Faedrina. One amongst the wealthy citizens of Ephesus was Daughter of Vedius Antonius and the famous sophist P. Flavius Daminianus, each had a room added to the structure. The building underwent major alterations during the Byzantine period.

Basilica

The Basilica, that starts from the Gymnasium before the Odeion and extends to the foundation chambers on the west was originally devoted to commerce, having been created as an exchange. During the reign of August the Basilica was created in 3 sections over a gallery with a single hall, which was located during the Hellenistic period. One unusual feature is a typical Roman basilica columns, most of that were renovated and installed here.

Its location next to the State Angora permitted commercial transactions to be carried out quicker. it’s been established that to the east of the Basilica there was a stoa, that underwent major alterations. From here, there were 3 entrances to the Basilica. The largest was in the middle. Here they found the statues of Augustus and his spouse Livia on the display in Ephesus museum. The Basilica is 165 meters long and contains columns with typical 1st century A.D. bulls’ heads and Ionian capitals.

Brothel

The Hadrian Temple is a peristyle house known as the brothel. It had been designed as a part of a group of buildings, together with the Baths of  lavatories and Scholastikia, during the time of Trajan (98-117 AD.). Its function was established with the discovery of an inscription within the lavatories. entering from the Marble Road, a street sign in the kind of a foot engraved on stone indicates its existence. A second entrance gives access from the street of Curettes. The group of buildings of which it’s a part underwent restoration within the 4th century A.D. it’s a two-stored building, with a large hall on the ground floor,surmounted by a number of small rooms on the floor above, although these are now ruined.

There are traces of fresco’s on the walls. The western hall was a dining room with a mosaic that displays the 4 seasons. This flanks the two main chambers of the baths. The elliptical pool contains a mosaic within the center depicting 3 ladies drinking, a servant standing, a mouse nibbling crumbs and a cat. Now on display in the Ephesus museum a statue of Priapos with outsize phallus, was found in a well to one end of the building.

Celsus Library

The Celsus Library is one of the finest structures in Ephesus and has recently been renovated. The building is raised on a high plinth and is approached via a broad flight of steps. It was designed by the consul Gaius Julius Aquila in 135 AD. as a hero on in honour of his father Celsus Polemaeanus the governor of Asia Minor. Highly ornamented on 2 levels, and there are 3 main portals. Over the portals were columns and statues arranged in niches. These statues were female figures representing the virtues fate, wisdom and intelligence. Niches on the interior of the building were designer to keep books. The tomb of Celsus was placed in a crypt below the central large niche.

Patron C.Aquila died according to the inscription on the architrave of the building before it had been completed and the construction was carried on by his heirs. For the acquisition of books for the library Aquila left 25 thousand dinar.

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Church of Saint John

St. John lived here with Mary the Virgin Blessed Virgin Madonna Jewess mother female parent. Mary once being forged out of Jerusalem in 37-42 A.D. according to legend, and it’s thought to be here that St. John wrote his gospel, and was buried within the church bearing his name in accordance with his dying desires. A wooden basilica was 1st created on the location, above his grave, within the 4th century A.D. that was replaced within the 5th century by the present church, designed during the reign of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian (577-565 A.D.).

Ephesus was under constant siege during the 7th and 8th centuries by the Arabs, once the church was encircled by a wall, which changed in structure over the years, but possessed 3 gates and 20 towers. The grand portal is the gate now used by visitors. The 2 other gates are to the east and west. The walls were designed with stones taken from the Gymnasium of Ephesus, as if during the first years of Christianity in revenge for the Christians thrown to the lions in that stadium. Via the main portal you can entered the Church dating to the 6th century that consists of an arched entrance flanked by 2 towers leading to a small atrium where one may see inscriptions associated with the Church which during excavations were there uncovered. This atrium, which measures 34×47 m. is on the western front, and consists of a central court encircled by an arched portico with a balustrade gallery to “the exterior. A number of amphora dating from various periods are to be seen within the center of the court. A 3 celled cistern is buried below the western portal and covered with a vault. With flanking walls this is buttressed to compensate for the curve of the site.

Between the atrium and the hub of the church is a long narrow narthex. Massive lentils of dressed marble frame the 3 doors leading to the atrium and into the hub from the narthex. A wall and a number of portals were added between the atrium and the narthex at a later date, to create an exonarthex. 5 cupola surmount the narthex itself. The main church is cruciform in plan, a classic plan with 3 naves, and a superstructure of six, giant domes over the main nave, with vaulted flanking hubs. The domes were originally supported by brick bond piers and marble, still partially in place, with a row of blue-veined marble columns lining the Church between the hubs. The monograms of Theodora, wife of Justinian, are inscribed on these columns, which allows us to date the structure. The higher than mentioned rows of Columns are joined by a series of arches which successively support a second row of vaults at gallery level. The mausoleum chamber is situated before the niche within the central hub, and is marked out by being raised from the rest of the nave, with 2 steps between.

A chapel, originally a part of the treasury within the court, was converted for devotional use within the 10th century. The mural of St. John, Christ and other sacred figures are contained within the apse. Immediately before it the treasury is reached via a gate. This is a centrally-planned chamber, 6.30 m. in diameter, fronted by an apsidal vaulted hall and flanked by a chantry. The main chamber is sub-divided by a cruciform set up, into a series of cells, each containing vaulted niches. It’s a two-course building surmounted originally by a dome, now in ruins. The baptistery is reached via a portal letting into the fore hall of the treasury. It’s connected to the Church via an extended narrow corridor running parallel to the northern hub. The baptismal pool dates to the 6th century, and was originally a tomb.

The plan of the baptistery is somewhat advanced. The main chamber is octagonal in plan, and is framed by a narrow corridor and flanked on 2 sides by apsidal-planned halls. The main baptistery is paved with marble, with the pool within the center. The baptistery predates the Justinian church, being built in the 5th century.

Church of The Virgin Mary

Mary situated next to the Harbor corn exchange, this is the first church to be dedicated to Mary the Virgin Blessed Virgin Madonna Jewess mother female parent. The third Ecumenical Council was been also held in 431 A.D. and is significantly important to the development of Christian dogma.
The structure in which it’s housed is 260 meters long and 30 meters width was used for Theological training and for the scientific training of the priests of Ephesus. The plan is that of a triple naves building and within the 4th century the church was transformed into a basilica with a central area flanked by 2 aisles. When an apse was opened within the eastern wall and a Baptisterium added to the north side of an atrium to the west of the church. The central area is the same dimension as the apse while the flanking aisles are somewhat smaller. They’re separated from the area by 2 rows of columns with geometric-designed balustrade panels between.

There are mosaics on the floor of the narthex to the Western side of the structure ornament with geometrical patterns while the Atrium which has one apsidal wall is paved with stones of various types. The Baptisterium is circular in plan and contains the baptismal pool within the center. During the reign of the emperor Justinian (527 -565) additional alterations led to the construction of a centrally planned chantry surmounted by a single dome between the apse and the narthex of the original church.

The cauldron in the center was brought there from the Harbor Baths. In the 10th century an additional church was added to the Eastern front with a small chantry being added to the southern tip of the church. The council meeting held in this church in 431 A.D. agreed to accept as dogma the notion that Jesus the son of Mary the Virgin Blessed Virgin Madonna Jewess mother female parent. Jesus was also the Son of God.

Ephesus Museum

The excavations which have been continuing since the last century at Ephesus nowadays are being carried out by Austrian archaeologists. The works excavate during these excavations are being displayed at the Ephesus museum (Pictures). However the works obtained in excavations before World War II were taken to the Vienna museum. The works museum that formerly was located in a small building. The new building was further enlarged in 1979 to the current size of today’s Ephesus museum. The artifacts brought from the ruins of Ephesus, the Temple of Artemis, the Ayasoluk Hill and the Belevi mausoleum are being displayed during this museum. All of those are displayed in seven completely different halls. The primary hall is for household findings. Here, the murals found within the homes of Ephesus and the mosaics among that the head of Medusa and Dionysus of 5th century take place, draw attention.

The most remarkable one is the fresco of Socrates, the famous philosopher created in 1st century A.D. Again the head of Socrates created out of marble in 3rd century A.D. is also being manifest in this hall. Another exceptional work in this hall which is on display in a showcase and created in form of the fountain of a pool is the small statue of Eros with Dolphin which belongs to the 2nd century A.D. The waters are being flowed out of the eyes of Dolphin into the pool. Sculptures of Asclepius the God of Health of Artemis small sculpture of the Egyptian monk of 6th century B.C. and the sculpture of Bes created out of baked soil in 2nd century AD. Symbolizing fertility are the favorite works of this hall. The most attractive one amongst the sculptures and heads of Eros are in this hall of Roman Copy of Eros’ head created by Lysippos within the Hellenistic period. Next to the Eros’s child head found in Bouleuterion, the portrait bust of Menander the comedy author takes place.

Busts of Emperor Tiberius and also the Empress Livia, statue of Artemis and also the bronze human head of Roman period are some of the opposite works of this hall. From this hall, it’s proceeded into a hall where findings of a little door and a fountain take place. the primary work on the right hand side is the head of Zeus of 1st century B.C Next to this, the sculpture of Aphrodisias of 1st century A.D. and in the center the statue of a resting warrior of I st century A.D. take place. On the left hand side of identical hall, the statue group of Polyphemos and Odysseus of 1st century A.D. are often seen. These artifacts initially placed on the frontal of the Temple of Augustus and later were placed on the Fountain of Pollio.

On the ground, the friends of Odysseus killed by the Giant and on the side, Odysseus carrying a pole to take the Giant’s eye out are seen. Right across from this group the sculptures of Trajan Fountain occur. Here sculptures of young Dionysus of 2nd century A.D., of Satyr in laying position (2nd century A.D.) Dionysus and imperial family by the wall are displayed. On the other side of this hall, are the statues of Laecanius Bassus Fountain, also known as the Water Palace. On the wall, the Roman copies of the head of a warrior with helmet and the head of Lysimachos of 5th century B.C are some of the works that draw attention.

Ephesus Artemision – Church of St.John – Isabey mosque – Ephesus plan- The Seven Sleepers cave – State Agora – aqueduct of Sextilius – Pollio Odeion (Bouleuterion) – Varius Baths – Prytaneion Basilica (Municipal Hall) – Fountain of Laecanius Bassus – Fountain of Pollio – Domitian Tempel – Memmius Monument – With Reliefs of Hercules at victory Arch – Street of the Curretes – Fountain of Trajan – Temple of Hadrian – Round Tower – Scholastikia brothel Baths- Terrace homes Celsus Library Agora – Gate of Mazaeus and The Agora Marble way at Mithridates Arcadian Street – Ephesus Theater arena – Harbor Baths – Church of Mary the Virgin Blessed Virgin Madonna Jewess mother female parent – Vedius Gymnasium – Harbor Gymnasium and Baths house of Verulanus from The Virgin Mary Ephesus museum. The excavations which have been continuing since the last century at Ephesus, nowadays are being administered by Austrian archaeologists. The artifacts unearthed during these excavations are being displayed at the Ephesus museum. however the artifacts was obtained in unearthing prior to WW II, were taken to the Vienna museum. The artifacts in the museum that formerly was located in a small structure, the new structure was further enlarged in 1979 to the current size of today’s Ephesus museum.

The artifacts brought from the ruins of Ephesus, the Temple of Artemis, the Ayasoluk Hill and also the Belevi mausoleum are being displayed in this museum. All of those are unfolded in seven different halls. The primary hall is for household findings. Here the murals found within the homes of Ephesus Tours with mosaics among the head of Medusa and Dionysos of 5th century take place draw attention. The foremost exceptional one is the mural of Socrates the famous philosopher created in 1st century A.D.. Again the head of Sokrates created out of marble in 3rd century A.D. is also being displayed in this hall. Another remarkable artefact in this hall which is on display in a showcase and created in sort of the fountain of a pool is the small statue of Eros with Dolphin that belongs to the 2nd century A.D.. Out of the eyes of dolphin the waters are being flowed into the pool. Statues of Asklepios, the God of Health, of Artemis, tiny statue of the Egyptian monk of 6th century B.C. and the statue of Bes created out of baked soil in 2nd century AD. symbolising fertility are the favorite works of this hall. the most attractive one among the statues and heads of Eros taking place in this hall is the Roman Copy of Eros’ head created by Lysippos within the Hellenistic period. Next to the child Ero’s head you can fınd Bouleuterion the portrait bust of Menander the comedy author takes place. Busts of Empress Livia and Emperor Tiberius, statue of Artemis and the bronze human head of Roman period are some of the other works of this hall.
From this hall it’s proceeded into a hall where findings of a small door and a fountain occur. The first artıfact on the right side is the head of Zeus of 1st century B.C next to the current statue of Aphrodisias of 1st century A.D. and within the centre the statue of a resting warrior of I st century A.D. take place. On the left side of identical hall the sculptor group of Polyphemos and Odysseus of 1st century A.D. can be seen. These artifacts initially placed on the frontal of the Temple of Augustus an later were moved to the Fountain of Pollio. On the display the friends of Odysseus was killed by the Giant and on the side Odysseus carrying a pole to take the Giant’s eye out, are seen. Right across from this display the statues of Trajan Fountain take place.

The sculptures of the young Dionysus of 2nd century A.D. of Satyr in laying position, Dionysus and imperial family by the wall are displayed. On the other side of this hall, are the sculptures of Laecanius Bassus Fountain additionally known as the Water Palace. On the wall the Roman replica of the head of a soldier with helmet and the head of Lysimachos of 5th century B.C are some of the artifacts that draw attention. From here it’s proceeded to the hall of recent findings. Crosses, coins and the works of 1st century A.D. such as glass trays, theatrical masks, candles found within the Seven Sleepers Cavern. The bust of Emperor Marcus Arelius were found in the homes on the ramp are some of the artifacts that can be seen here. The ivory frieze that is one of the finest works of the museum was found within the homes of the slope in 1969.

The work that belongs to 2nd century AD. depicts the war, Emperor Trajan fought against barbarians, Emperor Trajan can be clearly identified within the high relief on the central panel, From here, it’s proceeded to the garden of museum. Within the frontal of a temple placed during this garden one can see the friezes of the Pollio Fountain completed and placed thereafter. Also pillar heads on the west wall tomb and vow steles are being exhibited here. The big sarcophagus which takes place within the garden is brought here from the Belevi mausoleum that is at a distance of 11 km from Selcuk. It’s believed that this mausoleum of 3rd century B.C. belongs to Antiochos Theos II. He died in 246 B.C. in Ephesus who is one of the Kings Seleukos after Alexander the Great. Nowadays at the site of this mausoleum which is 23 meters high and has dimensions of 29×65 meters. Only its pedestal can be seen from the garden. It’s proceeded to the tomb findings hall.

Here you can see on display the interment ceremonies, traditions and also tomb findings. Also Mycenaean dishes found in one of the graves that dates back to almost 1400 B.C. and is located at St. Jean can be seen here. Within the middle of this hall a Klazomenai type sarcophagus of 5th century B.C. found within the trade Agora of Ephesus and made of baked soil and also the artifacts found in it are being exhibited. Also, the artifacts found in the Seven Sleepers Cavern are in this hall. Additionally the statue of the mother goddess Cybele that belongs to 6th century B.C. and the statue of Olympia the daughter of Diokles of 2nd century B.C. are other artifacts that attract attention.

Next visit is the Artemis hall. The statues of Artemis and the artifacts found in the Temple of Artemis are displayed. Both sculptures of Artemis one called the Beautiful Artemis and the other called the Great Artemis were found during the excavations made at Ephesus Prytaneion. The great Artemis is 2.92 meters tall and belongs to 2nd century A.D. and has a triple bonnet on her head. the beautiful Artemis is 1.74 meters tall and is created about 50 years after the other and besides her sacred animals take place.

These sculptures with their multi breasts represent fertility. The golden goddess statue found within the excavations of the Temple of Artemis that is on display within the showcase belongs to 2nd century B.C. The ivory, baked soil, bronze and golden artifacts belong to the period between 7th and 5th centuries B.C. and were left at the temple as vow articles. From here, it’s proceeded to a hall where emperor cults and portraits are on display. the first statue belongs to consul Stephanos and is seen in this hall of 6th century A.D.. Other portraits that belong to distinguished inhabitants of Ephesus belong to 3rd century A.D. 4 items of friezes that belong to Temple of Hadrianus of 3rd century also are being displayed during this hall. in the centre, a part of the altar of Domitian Temple can be seen. Julia Paula’s bust and the bust of Emperors such as Trajan, Commodus,  Nero, Germanicus and Augustus are displayed here. When we leave this hall after seeing the sculptures of Augustus and of his wife Livia we shall have completed our tour through the museum.

Ephesus Theatre
This theatre, that had a seating capacity of 25,000 was first constructed during the Hellenistic period, although the current structure dates from the 1-2nd centuries AD. The Roman Theater was begun during the reign of Claudius 34-41 A.D. and it took 60 years to make. The second and third stores of the scene 25×40 meters where created during the 54-68 A.D. Reigns of the Emperors Nero and Septimus Severus 193-211 A.D.. Only parts of the scene now date from the Hellenistic period. The Theater has 3 caves and each one of them has 22 rows. To that access was obtained via flights of steps between the caves. The scene is 18 meters in height and also the inner was decorated with reliefs, columns, blind niches, windows and decorated with sculptures on 3 levels. The semicircular orchestra, encircled by a channel fronted a second scene supported on columns 2.70 meters in height that was approached by flights of steps. This section of the scene was used during the Roman period.

Fountain of the Leocanius Bassus

At the corner in the southwest of the State Agora we find the remains of a fountain. According to an inscription that was show up during the course of excavation, construction of this fountain was ordered by Gaius Laecanius Bassus in 80 A.D.. The facade of this fountain constructed by Bassus, one of the wealthy man of Ephesus, was richly decorated and consisted of 2 stores that faced the road. The statues of Triton’s and Muses that were found at the fountain are now on exhibit at the Ephesus museum. Because of the enormous size of the fountain it’s been referred to as the Water Palace. Both fountains are located just the opposite to the west of the State Agora are connected to each another and also at the same time to a storage reservoir. The main section consists of a body within the style of a semicircle and was built in the 2nd century A.D..

The fountain underwent repairs within the reign of Constans and Constantius II (337-350) when the current wings were added. In inscriptions this structure is referred to as the Nymphaion. It’s the terminal point of the aqueduct of Sextilius Pollio that was engineered during the Reign of Augustus between 7 -15 A.D.. The aqueduct was 3.5 kilometers long and its remains may still be seen along the Selcuk – Aydin main road. There was a cistern within the upper part of the fountain and the surroundings of the structure were decorated with statues of the Emperor.

Fountain of Pollio
On behalf of E.Sextilius Pollio this fountain was built in 93 A.D. by E.Atillius. The fountain had a large covered pool that was faced in marble slabs. This Odysseus and Polyphemus group of statues, recently uncovered at excavations still occurring, display at the museum. The fountain has been renovated from parts that have been found and raised.

Fountain of Trajan
Next to the Hadrian temple also on the road of the Curettages stands this fountain built in honor of the Emperor Trajan (98-117 AD.). The pool was 20 meters long and 10 meters wide. It’s been partially renovated. Originally the pool was flanked by columns and statuary. The statues are currently on display within the Ephesus museum. The overlooking the pool contained an immense statue of Trajan within the center the feet of that remain in situ. Parts of the torso were also found during excavation. This is one of the outstanding monuments in Ephesus.

Gate of Mozaues and Mithridates

The most impressive of the 3 entrances to the Agora was the gate along side the Celsus Library that was dedicated to Augustus and his family by the slaves Mazaeus and Mithridates. The gate was created in 40 A.D. The dedicatory inscription writing in Latin belong to the artifacts is visible on one side and was created in inlaid letters of bronze. The two prisoners originally employed by Augustus and later by his son in law Agrippa. Afterwards they were manumitted and settled in Ephesus. After making their assets they had this gate constructed and dedicated in honor of their former master. Built in the shape of a ceremonial arch. The gate consists of 3 sections.

The second impressive gate of the Agora was this one situated on the west. The front was richly decorated with Ionian columns and the gate that was somewhat high was reached by a stairway. An inscription found near the gate reads “Whoever urinates here are going to be punished”.

Harbour Baths
Built in the 2nd century A.D., it was renovate during the Reign of Constantine II (337-361) orientated along an north-south axis it stands between the harbor and the Gymnasium and is one of the biggest structures in Ephesus measuring 160×170 meters and 28 meters in height. Within the center of the big hall to the east is the Frigidaire flanked on each side by dressing rooms. The Frigidaire contains a pool 30 meters in length. Marble composite columns are set on piers 11 meters in height. Several statues were found there. The Caldarium to the west is a spacious high-roofed building. Large numbers of statues were found within the baths and their bases remain in situ.

Harbor Gymnasium and Verulanus Baths

In the Reign of Hadrian the Gymnasium was built and is entered from the Harbor Road. It’s an oval-planned mosaic-paved open court above the gate leading to the Atrium. A portal flanked on either side with bull-heads bearing gems results in 2 pools. The building that measures 40×20 meters has a palaestra in the center as in other gymnasium of this kind encircled by cells used by the students for various purposes. The palaestra is faced with colored marble plaques. an imperial hall apsidal in plan flanks the northern wall. The Gymnasium was two-stored and to the east is the Verulanus construction engineered by the chief priest of Asia during the reign of Hadrian (117-138 AD.). The biggest of a series of sports facilities lined in length of the Harbor Road. It measures 200×240 meters and stretches from the Theater Gymnasium at one end to the Harbor Gymnasium at the other.

Access to the main road is via a 5 sectioned portal leading out to a narrow connecting alley. The construction consists of a track encircled by a marble-paved triple columned portico, with access to the Gymnasium on its western flank.

House of the Virgin Mary

some 4 to 6 years after the death of Christ, St. John is said to have accompanied Virgin Mary to Ephesus where it’s believed they dwelt in a tiny house that now stands the Council Church of Virgin Mary. The Council Ephesus dated of 431 A.D. record this. Later St. John brought Virgin Mary Mother to a house on the slopes of bulbul Mountain the position of that was later forgotten until research was begun in 1891 to find traces of it. This house discovered by Katerina Emmerikin at Panaya Kapulu which fits the descriptions given within the sources. It was formally accepted to be the house of Virgin Mary in 1892 with the celebration of High Mass there by Timoni, archbishop of Izmir and this theory has recently been confirmed by Pope Paul VI in 1967 and Pope John Paul II in 1979 with the celebration of High Mass at Ephesus. The home is reached by a road leading from the ruins of Ephesus towards the bulbul Mountain and is just a short walk from the road (100 m).

On the location of the House of Virgin Mary is a cruciform church with a central dome that is believed to have been incorporated into the first building within the 6-7th centuries. The later structure can simply be known as shown in red getting into the church via an arched Rortico with flanking niches one reaches a vaulted narthex from that a raised portal leads to the nave and apse. A statue of Virgin Mary to be seen here was erected in the last century and is fronted by a Grey fireplace area known to have been used for burning coal and traces of coal and wine were found there during excavations. The tiny area to the south was a bed chamber.

The apsidal niche within the eastern wall of this room is thought to be a shrine by Muslims, who believe the goodness of Virgin Mary. Arabic inscriptions around the walls are quotations from the Quran with reference to Virgin Mary. To the west are a sequence of fountains springing from below the floor of the house. The water flowing from these fountains is considered sanative. Visitors are free to drink the waters beneath the shade of the shrine.

Isabey Mosque
This mosque, located on the slope containing Ayasoluk Castle and the Church of St. John, attracts the visitors to the latter structure with its beauty. The Mosque was built by the architect Aliye son of Þamlý in 1375 on orders by Ýsa Bey, son of Mehmet, leader of the Aydinoðullarý. The structure is built on a 51 by 57 metres nearly rectangular plan. The door which faces west is decorated with artificial stalactites, over which is a dedicatory inscription.

Upon entry there is a courtyard which is surrounded on three sides by porticoes with a fountain for ablutions in the centre. The Mosque itself is entered from the courtyard through a triple vaulted doorway. This section possesses two domes set upon four granite columns. The pulpit is covered with tiles. Three of the column capitals are done in traditional Turkish style, while a fourth is a Roman capital.

The western was done inspired by Konya Seljuk works. The upper parts of the windows on the left are decorated with rows of stalactites and inscriptions of hadith (incidents from the life of the Prophet). The ones on the right are each decorated in an entirely separate style. This is one of the first examples of a mosque containing two congregation places, and as such it represents an important example of the transition from Seljuk to Ottoman art.

Marble Way
It is situated on a square beyond the Herakles gate, and was built during the 1st century AD., during the reign of Augustus, by the Memmius family. Partical restoration has been carried out with surviving fragments. According to an inscription. The monument was erected by Memmius, one of the descendants of the dictator Sulla. During the 4th century A.D. a large fountain was built onto the north-west facade.

Memmius Manument
It is situated on a square beyond the Herakles gate, and was built during the 1st century AD., during the reign of Augustus, by the Memmius family. Partical restoration has been carried out with surviving fragments. According to an inscription. The monument was erected by Memmius, one of the descendants of the dictator Sulla. During the 4th century A.D. a large fountain was built onto the north-west facade.

Odeion (Bouleuterion)
The Odeion, in which State affairs and concerts were held, was ordered to be construct by Publius Vedius Antoninus and his wife Flavia Papiana, two wealthy citizens of Ephesus, in the 2nd century AD.
The Odeion seated an audience of 1450 and was enclosed. Since the podium next to the orchestra and the stage section do not conform to the style of a typical Roman theatre, the structure was most likely used primarly as a meeting hall for the Municipal Council. The location of government structures alongside strengthens this view.

Pritaneion (Municipal Hall)
The Municipal Hall, built together with the Altar of Hestia alongside it, was at the same time used as the sacred precinct of the City.

There was a sacred flame kept constantly alight over the Altar of Hestia, and there were statues of Artemis of Ephesus here which were marble copies of the wooden statues located in the Temple of Artemis. The Prytaneion was primarily a place where religious ceremonies and rituals were held. Although the building was first constructed in the 3rd century B.C during the reign of Lysimachos, the remains we see today are those of the sections which were reconstructed during the reign of Augustus. The four-cornered pit in which the sacred fire burned is a relic from the reign of Lysimachos.

The building is constructed in the Doric style and is surrounded by a large number of late-period structures which were used for municipal services. A great number of structural elements were removed from this building during the construction of the Scholastikia Baths.

Round Tower
This is situated behind the Trajan fountain, at the foot of Panayýr Mountain. The tower was erected as a monument in 50 A.D. It is square-planned, and set on a podium was the cylindrical shaft surrounded bya row of arches on two courses, now in ruins.

Stadium
En route to the ruins after the Gymnasium of Vedius, the monumental gate of the Stadium attracts our attention. The original Stadium was constructed in the Hellenistic Period, and was restored and expanded during the reign of the Emperor Nero (54-58 A.D.). The large vaulted gates were later modified and repaired in the 3rd and 4th centuries.

The Stadium is 230 metres long and 40 metres wide, and its right side rests on bedrock. On the left, vaulted passageways have been constructed for the rows of seats. Athletic contests, gladiatorial fights, and chariot races were held in this Stadium. The stepping stones of the interior have been carried away.

State Agora
The square structure built immediately alongside the Basilica is the State Agora of Ephesus which is reached from the Basilica by four steps. This Agora, which was built during the Roman Period over the existing 2nd century B.C Agora, was where all the city’s business other than commerce was conducted. Exploratory excavations made in the northeast corner of the Agora have turned up a great number of graves from the.7th through 6th centuries B.C and a stone-paved road, and a archaic sarcophagus of terra cotta was found here. From this it is understood that in the archaic period this section served as the necropolis of Ephesus.

Model of the State Agora:
1- Baths of Vedius, 2- Basilica, 3- Odeion, 4- Temple of Divus Julius, 5-Prytaneion, 6- Memmius Monument, 7- Garland frieze, 8-Fountain of Pollio, 9- Temple of Isis, 10- South hall, 11- Fountain of Laecanius Bassus, 12- Temple of Domitian, 13- Fountain.

The Agora is 160 metres long and 73 metres wide and appears to have been constructed during the reigns of Augustus and Claudius, that is, during the 1st century A.D. In the center of the Agora, a temple in a somewhat different style was unearthed in 1970. This structure, also from the 1st century A.D. appears to have been a Temple to Isis. Constructed on a 10 by 6 column plan, only the foundations of this temple have been located. The superstructure of the temple was torn down on the orders of the Emperor Theodosius in the 4th century in the course of alterations which were made in the Agora.

Street of the Curretes
This street, which starts at the Celsus Library and extends east to the Magnesia Gate, is known as the Street of the Curettes, and takes its name from the class of priests referred to as “curettes” in long lists found at the clerical schovl of chief priests. These priests guarded the sacred fire of the Goddess Hestia (Vesta). The street is decorated with fountains, monuments, statues, and galleries containing mosaics. On one side there are shops behind the columned porticoes.

The street assumed its final appearance in the 4th and 5th centuries.

Temple of Domition
The Temple of Domitian (AD. 81-96) was the first structure at Ephesus dedicated to an emperor. The building is constructed on a terrace set on vaulted foundations. The temple was constructed by the Ephesians as a token and symbol of their friendship with Romans. Today little remains of the Temple of Domitian, which was located in the centre of a broad platform, exists. The work on the temple began while the emperor was still alive, and the structure was destroyed at the end of the Christian Period. The huge statue of Domitian found near the temple is today at the Ýzmir Museum. Approach to the temple was achieved by means of the monumental stairway still visible today on the north side of the terrace. The temple was decorated with eight columns. To the north was an altar, now on display in the Ephesus Museum, which is decorated with reliefs portraying various implements of war.

The terrace is 50 by 100 metres in size, and from the north appears to be two storeys high. The terrace is set on a foundation which rests against the slope. On the east were shops and small chambers, where a fresco of Demeter was found. On either side of the U-shaped extension are niches, above which were located windows which served to light the interior.

Temple of Hadrian
This is on the street of the Curettes, and is one of the better preserved buildings at Ephesus. According to the inscription over the architrave it was constructed by P.Quintilius between 118-138 A.D., and dedicated to the emperor Hadrian. Corinthian columns on the support a triangular arched frieze, highly decorative in character, which contains a relief of Tyche, goddess of victory. A vaulted roof covers the colonnaded portico. Four statue bases front the building. Demolished in the 4th century AD. during restoration, the two friezes flanking the portal were brought from other buildings and mounted there. They represent scenes from the foundation of Ephesus, and include figures of deities and Amazons, and the Amazons and Dionysos in ceremonial procession. The fourth frieze portrays Athena, goddess of the moon, two male figures, one of which is Apollo, a female figure, Androkles, Herakles, the wife and son of Theodosius and the goddess Athena.

Terrace Houses
Houses on the slopes behind Ephesus are to be seen opposite the Temple of Hadrian. Those on the upper slopes are reached via steps. They are situated on the slopes of Bulbul Mountain, with the roof of one house forming the terrace of that above it. They were inhabited by wealthy Ephesians, and are finely decorated with mosaics and frescos. Built in the period of Augustus, they were much altered and continued to be inhabited until the 7th century AD., according to the evidence of excavations. Two of the insulae houses have been totally restored and are now open to the public.

Peristyle House I: This two-storeyed house covers an area of 900 m2. It is a 12-roomed house entered via a flight of steps leading down to a hall (A1 ), to the right of which is another flight of stairs, flanked by a facet and basin, which leads to the other rooms of the house. A2 is reached via a passageway. It is the courtyard, with four doric columns in the corners and paved in marble. The remains of a fountain can be seen in the northern corner of the court. Beyond this are the halls A10-11, which have mosaic floors and frescos decorating the walls. The house dates from the 1st century AD, but these two rooms were added in 400 AD. One of these rooms is flanked bya staircase leading up to the upper floor of the house, and beyond that is another chamber decorated with frescos and with a mosaic floor (B7).

East of the peristyle courtyard is a hall with walls 4 m. in height. Situated next to the entrance, this room is decorated with fresco scenes from the plays of Euripides-namely ‘Orestes’, to the left and the comedies of Menander to the right, namely ‘Sikyonioi’. It is known as the theatre room because of these frescos. The other walls are decorated with figures, namely the combat of Acheloos, the river god, with Herakles to the left. The frescos in this room, which also has a mosaic floor, must date to the 2nd century AD. The house also possesses a bathroom, to the south of the entrance hall (A.8), with the kitchen flanking it (A.12). Next to this are various small chambers opening onto the flanking street, and the service entrance. Artefacts found during the course of excavation are displayed in situ.

Peristyle House II: This is beyond the first house. It possesses two peristyles and is larger than the other houses on the insula. First built in the Ist century AD., it underwent various restorations up to the 7th century. The main peristyle (B1 ), which possesses columns dating to the 5th century in the Corinthian order,flanks to the south, a long gallery covered from end to end in black and white geometric mosaics. Opposite this is a second gallery containing mosaics of Triton and Nereide. Triton bears in his left hand, the spear of his father Poseidon, while holding the reigns of the sea horse bearing Nereide in his right hand.

These figures are placed before the vaulted open niche (B.6). The latter is paved with black and white marble in a basketwork pattern. Frescos on the walls include the heads of Dionysus and Ariadne framed by medallions, surrounded by trees, peacocks, ducks and cockerels. These mosaics are dated to the 5th century AD., and are in extremely good condition. The vaults are framed to both sides by a fresco frieze depicting Eros figures bearing a garland. Other rooms of various sizes to the east of the house are paved with black and white mosaic patterns and embellished with frescos of birds and floral patterns. The walls of two other rooms (B9 and 10) are decorated with fresco panels of muses, dating to the 4th century.

B11-12 is the dining hall. Niches set into the southern wall mark the wash-basins. They contain frescos which were restored in monochrome at a much later period. The kitchen is on the western corner of the house, and is decorated with frescos of fish and birds. The second peristyle (B14) fianks this hall.

Vedius Gymnasium
As one enters the ruins of Ephesus, the first structure one encounters is the Vedius Gymnasium the remains of those monumental walls attract our attention. This building was constructed around the middle of the 2nd century A.D. by Publius Vedius Antoninus, a leading citizen of Ephesus.
According to its inscription, this Gymnasium was dedicated to the city’s goddess Artemis and to the Emperor Antoninus Pius ( 138-161 AD.) jointly by Publius Vedius Antoninus and his wife Papiana.

The entrance of the Gymnasium, which faces the asphalt road, is on the east. Passing through this doorway one finds himself in the palaestra (courtyard), which is surrounded by columns.

After this courtyard comes the hall of emperors, having floors decorated with mosaics and which was fitted out with statues. It was at the center of the back wall of this hall that the statue of the emperor was found.

Ephesus Artemision Church of St.John Isabey Mosque Plan of Ephesus Cave of the Seven Sleepers State Agora – Aqueduct of Sextilius Pollio Odeion (Bouleuterion) – Baths of Varius Prytaneion (Municipal Hall) Basilica – Fountain of Laecanius Bassus Fountain of Pollio Temple of Domitian Memmius Monument Victory Arch with Reliefs of Hercules Street of the Curretes Fountain of Trajan Temple of Hadrian Round Tower – Baths of Scholastikia Brothel Terrace Houses Celsus Library Agora Gate of Mazaeus and Mithridates at the agora Marble way Arcadian Street – Ephesus Theatre Stadium – Harbour Baths Church of the Virgin Mary Vedius Gymnasium Harbour Gymnasium and Verulanus Baths House of the Virgin Mary Ephesus Museum As one enters the ruins of Ephesus, the first structure one encounters is the Vedius Gymnasium the remains of those monumental walls attract our attention.

This building was constructed around the middle of the 2nd century A.D. by Publius Vedius Antoninus, a leading citizen of Ephesus. According to its inscription, this Gymnasium was dedicated to the city’s goddess Artemis and to the Emperor Antoninus Pius ( 138-161 AD.) jointly by Publius Vedius Antoninus and his wife Papiana. The entrance of the Gymnasium, which faces the asphalt road, is on the east. Passing through this doorway one finds himself in the palaestra (courtyard), which is surrounded by columns. After this courtyard comes the hall of emperors, having floors decorated with mosaics and which was fitted out with statues. It was at the center of the back wall of this hall that the statue of the emperor was found. Part of this structure was used as a bath, and in the portion looking out on the street there is a dressing room and around this a tepidarium, a caldarium, and a frigidarium.

All the statues found here are today in the izmir Archaeological Museum.

Victory Arch with Reliefs of Hercules
This victory arch with reliefs of Hercules is located at the junction of the Street of the Curettes with secondary streets. The monument was constructed towards the end of the 4th century, but no other parts of it have been found. If the structure to be completed; it would appear to resemble the Arch of Constantine in Rome. The reliefs of Hercules were originally made in the 2nd century, and were brought here towards the end of the 4th century from another structure.